Forging is a common name for forging and stamping. It uses the hammer head, anvil, punch or through the die of the forging machine to apply pressure to the blank to make it plastically deformed to obtain the desired shape and size. Forging machine tools are equipment for cold working of metal and machinery. It only changes the outer shape of metal. This machine tools include plate bending machine, shearing machine, punching machine, hydraulic machine, bending machine, etc.
There are four forms of industrial forging presses:
1. Spiral forging machine
The forging machine that reverses the rotary motion into the up and down reciprocating motion of the slider. The screw press machine is usually driven by the motor through the friction disk to drive the flywheel rim to make the flywheel rotate, so this press is also called a friction press. The largest friction press in China is 25 trillion cattle. Later, electric screw presses that used motors to directly drive the flywheel appeared. It has a compact structure and few transmission links. Due to frequent commutation, it requires higher control electrical appliances and special motors.
2. Extrusion forging machine
Hot extrusion forging presses are widely used in the production of pipes and profiles for non-ferrous metals such as aluminum and copper, and belong to the scope of the metallurgical industry. Hot extrusion of steel is used not only to produce special pipes and profiles, but also to produce solid and hole (through or non-through holes) carbon steel and alloy steel parts that are difficult to form by cold or warm extrusion, such as rods, barrels, containers, etc. with large heads. The cold extrusion forging press was originally only used to produce pipes, profiles such as lead, zinc, tin, aluminum, copper, etc., as well as toothpaste hoses, dry battery shells, bullet shells and other parts . The cold extrusion operation is simple and suitable for smaller parts produced in large quantities.
3. Mechanical pressure forging machine
The mechanical pressure forging press converts the rotary motion of the motor into the linear reciprocating motion of the slider through the crank slider mechanism, and is a electric forging press that performs forming processing on the blank. The mechanical press is stable and reliable, and is widely used in stamping, extrusion, die forging and powder metallurgy processes. The number of mechanical presses accounts for more than half of the total number of various forging machines. The specification of the mechanical press is expressed by the nominal working force (kN), which is the movement of the slider to the bottom dead center of the stroke about 10 to 15 mm (or the crank angle from the bottom dead center is about 15 ° to 30 °) is the maximum working force designed to calculate the base point.
4. Roll forging press
A metal forging method in which a metal billet passes through two relatively rotating sector dies and undergoes plastic deformation to form a workpiece. It is a special form of forming rolling. Roll forging can be used to produce connecting rods, twist drills, wrenches, spikes, hoe, picks and turbine blades. The roll forging process uses the rolling forming principle to gradually deform the blank. Compared with ordinary die forging, it has the advantages of simple equipment structure, stable production, low vibration and noise, easy automation, and high production efficiency. Roll forging is divided into two types: blank roll forging and forming roll forging. Billet roll forging is to prepare blanks of required shape and size for die forging; forming roll forging can directly produce forgings that meet the shape and size requirements.